Thursday, June 1, 2017

U.S. Navy V-7 program insignia at Columbia and Ft. Schuyler

U.S. Navy V-7 midshipman hat badge.
Single piece construction.
Fouled anchor; gold-filled.
Late Second World War era.





Almost twenty years ago I read Herman Wouk’s 1951 Pulitzer Prize winning novel, The Caine Mutiny.  Recalling Captain Queeg, ball bearings, and strawberries, I recently decided to re-read the novel.  The work fashions a re-creation of the culture of urgency that both defined and circumscribed midshipman life during Second World War.  It accomplishes this by detailing the career of U.S. Navy midshipman at Columbia University.  Soon after completing this reading, I learned that Wouk not only took part in the V-7 midshipman program but he both attended and graduated from the U.S. Naval Reserve Midshipmen’s School at Columbia University.

Following this lead, I consulted a series of the program’s yearbooks – The Sideboy – and found Wouk in the August 1942 class.  His company barracked at Furnald Hall, as did the protagonist of The Caine Mutiny: Willie Keith.  Wouk’s descriptions of the place and the program match both Columbia and the photos in The Sideboy.  Thus, despite his novel being a work of historical fiction, it offers a rare insight and serves as a good primary source as to the functions of a little-studied midshipman organization.

The V-7 program was one of four Reserve officer-intake programs inaugurated by the U.S. Navy in February 1942 (V-1, V-5, V-7, and V-12). V-7 was one in which recent college graduates  or men about to complete their college training, were accepted by the U.S. Navy as apprentice seamen and sent to one of the seven Reserve Midshipmen’s Schools:  Columbia, Cornell, Naval Academy at Annapolis, Northwestern, Notre Dame, Plattsburg, and Fort Schuyler.  At the program’s outset, candidates served an initial month as seamen followed by four as an appointed midshipmen; by war’s end, this was compressed to three. After this period of intense naval indoctrination, they were granted commissions as ensigns and went directly to the Fleet or to one of the numerous special advanced schools for final training; e.g. Wouk attended one of such at Harvard for Communications.  Of his sojourn at the Midshipmen’s school and time with the Fleet, Wouk admitted that it figured as a major part of his education: “I learned about machinery, I learned how men behaved under pressure, and I learned about Americans.”

At Columbia University there is a plaque commemorating the Midshipmen’s School, which operated on its campus during the Second World War. It was presented to the University at the cessation of school’s activities.  It may be viewed on the south side of campus at Butler Library and is located on the east balustrade of the short staircase approaching Butler Library, just below waist level.  It reads:

To Columbia University
In appreciation of its generous assistance
and unceasing cooperation in the training
of 23,000 officers who went from the
U.S. Naval Reserve Midshipmen’s School
New York
to Active Duty in World War II
to defend the principals which this
University has always upheld

Commodore John K. Richards, U.S. Navy
Commanding Officer
April 20, 1942 November 2, 1945

Seal of U.S. Naval Reserve Midshipmen’s School

The U.S. Navy eventually used twelve Columbia buildings, including Furnald and John Jay Halls, to house the Midshipmen’s school; classes were held on Columbia’s Morningside campus and in a ship docked at Riverside and West 136th Street on the Hudson River.  At one point, Columbia University’s USNR Midshipmen’s School rivaled the United States Naval Academy in size.  In all, it trained more than 20,000 officers; most of whom served in the Pacific Theatre of Operations.

The following narrative of the Columbia USNR Midshipmen’s School is based upon two consecutive classes; the 7th of August 1942 and 8th of October 1942.  Within that 3 month period, vast changes occurred in the fabric of the program.

Program candidates began their initial training at Notre Dame in April 1942. After two weeks of apprenticeship training, they traveled to Columbia for a continuation of their indoctrination.  They were divided into two groups:  Engineering and Deck.  By graduation from the program, only 429 of the 500 of the former remained, and 284 of 350 of the latter. The instructional staff guiding the training of the midshipmen was divided into the following departments:

Administration
Drill
Navigation
Seamanship
Ordnance
Construction and Main Engines
Boilers and Auxiliaries
Deck for Engineering
Engineering for Deck
Medical Corps
Supply

Some senior officers were regular Navy. However, the majority of the staff were young USNR ensigns assisted by Chief Petty Officers and a few Warrant Officers.

Following the model as set at Annapolis, USNR Midshipmen followed a regimental and battalion structure.  There were two battalions; the 1st at the USS Prairie State (a barracks ship known as “The Ark” or “Black Hole of Calcutta”) and the 2nd at Furnald Hall (the USS Funald, the only ship with 10 decks – the lower deck was on top and vice versa).  Each Battalion was comprised of four and three companies, respectively.  Midshipmen stood watch, served in “black gangs,” drilled, and attended class from morning until night for each day of the week – unless granted weekend liberty or attending divine worship services.

The Regimental staff was comprised of a Staff and Color Guard component. The noted stripe count represents the number of stripes on the midshipman's sleeve*:

Regimental Staff
Commander 
– 4 stripes
Adjutant – 3 stripes
Signalman – 2 stripes
Regimental Chief Petty Officer 
– 1 stripe
Bugler – 1 stripe

Regimental Color Guard**
National Colors
Regimental Colors
Color Guard (2 midshipmen)

Battalions and Companies and had their own respective staffs that reported up the chain of command:

Battalion Staff
Commander 
– 4 stripes
Adjutant – 3 stripes
Signalman – 2 stripes
Battalion Chief Petty Officer – 1 stripe

Company Staff
Commander – 3 stripes
Sub-Commander – 2 stripes
1st Platoon Commander – 1 stripe
2nd Platoon Commander – 1 stripe
Battalion Chief Petty Officer – no stripes

* relative rank vis Annapolis as noted by stripe count:

4 stripes – Midshipman Lt. Commander
3 stripes – Midshipman Lieutenant
2 stripes – Midshipman Lieutenant Junior Grade
1 stripe 
– Midshipman Ensign

** no stripes
Company strengths by August 1945, were as follows:

1 – 109
2 – 107
3 – 108
4 – 105
5 – 97
6 – 93
7 – 94

In August 1942, V-7 midshipmen at Columbia wore uniforms almost exactly like those of their counterparts at Annapolis, with some distinct changes. Since theirs was a four-month program with the classes compressed and joining year-round, their “plebe” period saw midshipmen wearing the appropriate uniform for the season. For instance, the October 1942 class started out wearing US Navy enlisted undress blues for their initial period at Notre Dame, then switched to the familiar usual plebe whites. These were USN enlisted undress white jumpers with stenciled U.S.N.R. at mid-chest on the blouse; the midshipmen-to-be were not issued black silk scarfs. Both uniforms shared the blue-rimmed white hat – at the time called a Bob Evans hat, and now colloquially called a Dixie-cup hat. Those apprentices holding a Company and above leadership, position wore a white covered combination hat, and not the white hat with their undress whites or blues.

Those passing basic indoctrination period – not being “bilged” – rated full USNR Midshipman status.  They, in turn, gained the privilege of donning the six-button midshipman reefer, with the classic midshipman gold anchors on the upper coat collars. On the right cuff, they wore a three-prop propeller for Engineering or clean-sleeve for Deck as program marker. There were no “class” indicators of the vertical gold stripes on the coat sleeve like those at Annapolis; however, regimental officers wore horizontal rank stripes on both sleeves (with program indicator above, no stars). There were four, three, two, and one stripers as indicated above. Midshipmen petty officers and buglers, during this period, did not have crows and chevron, nor bugle patches.

Depending upon the program, midshipmen wore dungarees, undress whites and blues (crackerjacks without tape or silk ties), khakis, and dress blues. Both programs wore dungarees were worn in machine spaces; Engineering midshipmen wore undress blues or whites depending on season in classrooms; and Deck midshipman wore undress khakis (without jackets) in classrooms.  For Friday drill and inspection, all midshipmen wore service dress blues and combination hats with white covers. Regarding the khaki uniforms, midshipmen wore combination hats with khaki covers with a 1/8in-width gold chinstrap and on both collars, wore anchor devices on both collars. The anchor shank was horizontal in relation to the top of the wearer’s collar, with flukes inboard toward the neck, and stock outboard.

Fort Schuyler, the present site of the State University of New York Maritime School and once the New York Nautical School, has no plaques or commemorative markers of the shared grounds of the V-7 school nor of the brief sojourn of the U.S. Merchant Marine Cadet Corps in its midst.  The Midshipmen’s School was wedged between the Fort and the present gatehouse.  It shared wooden frame barracks and facilities with a Navy advanced school.
By comparison, at war’s end, Fort Schuyler's V-7 program yearbook
Gangway (published in October 1945) shows an altogether different organization of USNR Midshipmen.  Their program was also for a period of four months.  Images and texts suggest a need for expediency.  Teaching methods and means of turning out newly minted Naval Officers was honed to a science; anything not tantamount to the ultimate purpose of producing officers was cut. 

In uniform matters, from the laconic description of the program and presentation of collective memories, there is no indication of a plebe period where program inductees wore jumpers and Dixie-cup hats. These Atlantic Coast midshipmen wore working grays and were provided with service dress blues. They were not issued khaki uniforms. On their garrison hats was the midshipman anchor. They wore sets of horizontal midshipmen class anchors on their shirt collars. The service dress blues was the classic six-button USN officer uniform – except the coat collar had the midshipman anchor like those found on period Annapolis midshipman hats. These anchors were mirror images of each other, and are pin-back, and not with cap-screws (tabs). I see no indication of midshipman leadership positions; this program appears to be more of a boot-camp style organization. Midshipmen lacked chevrons, hashes, and shoulder boards on all uniforms – including the grays.

References
Herman Wouk. The Caine Mutiny. New York, Back Bay Books, 1992.

Leon Rogow (foreword). The Sideboy August 1942. New York, NY U.S. Naval Reserve, 1942.




Late war V-7 hat badge. 10K G.F. (Gold-Filled). Note: It is of the same design and size as the coat collar anchors.


Early V-7 coat anchor, 10K G.F. (Gold-Filled), H-H.




Late war V-7 coat anchor pair, 10K G.F. (Gold-Filled).



Late War V-7 collar anchor pair, 10K. It looks like they've been polished down to brass, as they've not the luster of the other insignia.

Saturday, September 15, 2012

U.S. Naval Reserve Insignia

usnr insignia U.S. Naval Merchant Marine Reserve insignia.
Single construction.
Eagle stamped brass with gold-plate.
1939-1940.
badge: 2-3/4in from tip to tip of wings.

In October 1942, a curious chain of memoranda was passed between the New York State Maritime Academy Superintendent and various U.S. Navy officials. Prompted by Kings Point cadet uniforms having sewn on them a previously professional only device in preparation for a parade on the 24th of the month, the NYSMA Superintendent had a valid question, and perhaps potentially a little egg-on-face for his counterpart across Long Island Sound. The notes touched on the eligibility of cadets at the aforementioned academy to wear a relatively recent badge: the U.S. Naval Merchant Marine Reserve Insignia. This insignia came to be called the U.S. Naval Reserve Insignia, or simply the Sea Chicken.


(580) Dy

October 14, 1942

From:    The Superintendent, New York State Maritime 
         Academy.
To:      The Chief of Naval Personnel.
Via:     The Commandant, Third Naval District.
Subject: Merchant Marine Reserve Insignia.
         Wear On Academy Uniform.
Reference: (a) Art. 16-9 of Chapter XVI of U.S. Navy 
            Uniform Regulations, 1941.

1. Information is requested whether the insignia 
described in reference (a) is authorized to be worn on 
the dress uniform of cadets enrolled in this academy who
hold appointments as Midshipmen in the Merchant Marine 
Reserve, U.S. Naval Reserve, and who do not hold licenses
issued by Marine Inspection Service.

/s/ Thos. T. Craven.
[Vice Admiral T. T. Craven, U.S.N.]



1st endorsemnet

JJ55-3
DMq09:cs

19 October 1942.

From:  The Commandant, Third Naval District.
To:    The Chief of Naval Personnel.

1. Forwarded.
2. The Commandant considers that the Merchant Marine 
Reserve insignia is intended to give recognition to 
merchant marine officers employed by private companies 
who are members of the Naval Reserve, and, therefore, 
does not recommend that cadets enrolled in the New 
York State Maritime Academy be authorized to wear this 
insignia.

/s/ Paul P. Blackburn,
By direction.



26 October 1942

Pers-1016--KS
JJ55-3(1522)

From:  The Chief of Naval Personnel.
To:    The Superintendent,
       New York State Maritime Academy,
       Fort Schuyler, The Bronx, N.Y.
Via:   The Commandant Third Naval District.
Subject: Merchant Marine Reserve Insignia - to be 
         worn by midshipmen, Merchant Marine 
         Reserve.
References: (a) Supt. N.Y.St.Mar.Acs.ltr (580)Dy 
            of Oct. 14, 1942.
            (b) Art. 16-9, Uniform Regulations, 
            U.S. Navy.
Enclosure:  (A) Copy of BuNav ltr. Nav-1644-XKS 
            (QR2(C)(66) of Oct. 4, 1941.

1. As midshipmen, Merchant Marine Reserve, at the State 
Maritime Academies are required to wear a uniform 
appropriate to an officer, and as these Academies are 
under the supervision of the War Shipping Administration, 
which succeeded to the training functions formerly 
performed by the U.S. Maritime Commission, midshipmen, 
Merchant Marine Reserve, under instruction at these 
Academies, are authorized to wear the Merchant Marine 
Reserve insignia on their Academy uniforms.

/s/ L. E. Denfield,
The Assistant Chief of Naval Personnel.




Apparently, the Maritime Academies had a friend in the Chief of Naval Personnel, as in 1942 the matter was settled in that all cadets may indeed wear the insignia. All of this begs the question: what was this insignia, that caused such a stir of interest among Naval and Maritime Academy officials?

The Merchant Marine Reserve had its beginnings in 1913 when US Congress wrote into law a reformulated the Naval Reserve Force. At the time, the Reserve was separated into five classes, and soon became six:
Class I: The Fleet Naval Reserve:  Consisting of personnel having former active Naval Service.

Class II: The Naval Reserve:  Consisting of persons of the seagoing profession who had served at least two years aboard a vessel on the high seas or larger lakes.

Class III: Naval Auxiliary Reserve: Consisting of persons who had served or were serving in the Merchant Marine of the United States.

Class IV:  Naval Coast Defense Reserve:  Consisting of personnel capable of performing special and useful service in the time of war.

Class V:  Volunteer Naval Reserve:  Consisting of personnel qualifying for the other classes of the Reserve, who were willing to serve without pay in the time of peace.

Class VI:  Naval Reserve Flying Corps:  Consisting of personnel who were from the Naval Flying Corps.
Class III, Naval Auxiliary Reserve, comprised of officers and unlicensed seamen, was the precursor of the Merchant Marine Reserve program, and the one for which the U.S. Naval Merchant Marine Reserve Insignia would ultimately be destined.

Insignia for the Reserve was first prescribed in “Changes in Uniform Regulations United State Navy, 1913 No. 10” in 1915. This was the first official publication of distinctive uniform elements for the entire Naval Reserve. At the time, those Merchant Marine Officers in Class III wore their steamship line or company uniform with the Naval Reserve Force device on the collar of the “military coat,” or on the lapels of the “box coat.”  This device was a miniature of the commissioned officers cap device. There were also special buttons worn on Merchant Marine uniforms. The button field was plain, with an anchor and the letters “U.S.” on either side of the shackle above the stock, and with the letters “N.R.” on either side of the shank between the stock and the flukes.

On June 25, 1938, the Naval Reserve Force underwent a name change to become simply the Naval Reserve. The classes were reduced to three with the original Naval Auxiliary Reserve renamed the U.S. Naval Merchant Marine Reserve, and still remaining the class III program. The “Naval Reserve (Merchant Marine) Insignia, Special Distinguishing Insignia for certain licensed officers” as it was first known and later called the “breast insignia of the Merchant Marine Reserve, U.S. Naval Reserve (Eagle and Scroll badge)”, was approved for wear on Merchant Marine uniforms on April 7, 1938, by then Secretary of the Navy, Claude A. Swanson. This insignia replaced the miniature cap device and buttons originally approved for the Naval Auxiliary Reserve. The authorization for the aforementioned insignia was the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, in which it was stated: “Licensed Officers who are members of the United States Naval Reserve shall wear on their uniforms such special distinguishing insignia as may be approved by the Secretary of the Navy.”  The 1936 Act was based on the earlier Shipping Act of 1916 that required officers serving on vessels receiving a Federal government operating subsidy to be, if eligible, members of the United States Naval Reserve. Other Naval Reserve officers serving in merchant ships in positions that required them to wear “a uniform appropriate to an officer,” were authorized to wear the insignia. The insignia was emphatically not authorized to be worn with the naval uniform. Moreover, enlisted men of the Naval Reserve were not permitted to wear the Merchant Marine Reserve insignia.

As authorized in 1938, the Merchant Marine Reserve insignia was composed of a gold embroidered bronze or gold plated metal pin consisting of a spread eagle surcharged with crossed anchors and shield 5/8in in height, 2-3/4in from tip to tip of wings; length of anchors 7/8in; and underset with 3/16 scroll bearing the letters “US” on one side of the shield and “NR” on the opposite side. Wearers were required to wear the Merchant Marine Reserve insignia on the left breast of their Merchant Marine uniform and nowhere else.

The eagle design is based on the original eagle carved into the stern of the USS Constitution. The scroll pattern was often found on the stern of ships and contained the ships’ names. The shield has 13 stars and stripes with crossed anchors taken from the then current US Navy officer’s cap device and recalling the original Naval Auxiliary Reserve insignia. Following the design of the cap device, the original insignia design had the eagle looking to its own left. In 1941, Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox prescribed a change wherein all Navy insignia bearing eagles were henceforth to have the heads facing their own right. According to heraldic law, the right side (dexter) of the shield is the honor side, and the left side (sinister) indicated dishonor or illegitimacy. The suggestion also has been made that the change was to have the eagle look toward the olive branches on the left side and peace as appears on the Great Seal of the United States, rather than the warlike arrows to the right. More information may be found here.

The 1930s was a turbulent time. The U.S. shipping industry was in free fall due to the Great Depression, with foreign firms having taken over most overseas and making strident end-runs in domestic shipping. As war erupted across Europe and Asia, the belligerent nations, which once carried the majority of U.S. trade, swept their ships into national service, leaving the U.S. both lacking in both ships and men. The Federal government stepped into the fray by subsidizing ship construction and encouraging the training of young men to enter the trade, and the U.S. Navy found itself looking for warm bodies to man its ships in the eventuality of war in Europe and in the Pacific. Naturally, the U.S. Navy looked to Nautical Schools and Merchant Marine Academies for potential manpower. Nevertheless, manpower could only be had with concessions from both sides: military and civilian.

At the invitation of the Navy Department, an informal conference of the governing bodies and Superintendents of the State nautical schools was held in Washington from April 12-14, 1938. The conference was attended by representatives from the then four State schools: New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and California. The object of the conference was to bring about a closer cooperation between the Navy Department and the State nautical schools; also to coordinate the work of the four schoolships. The end goal was to create a professional class of ship officers both adequately trained for the rapidly modernizing maritime industry and serve as potential U.S. Navy officers. Never before had a closer relationship between the two been groups been attempted.

Captain Felix X. Gygax, U.S.N., Director of the Naval Reserve, in the Bureau of Navigation, presided over the conference. The opening addresses at the conference were made by Captain Chester W. Nimitz, U.S.N., Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Navigation, Navy Department, and Captain Gygax. In referring to the State nautical schools, Captain Gygax said:
The Navy Department acknowledges and commends the splendid results that have been achieved, as attested by the fine record of the graduates of these nautical schools at sea, and the success of many more in positions of high trust and responsibility in connection with the administration and operation of the maritime industry ashore.
The conference resulted in the following: First, the curricula of the State nautical schools were extended with schools preparing young men not only for service in the American Merchant Marine but also in the United States Naval Reserve. The following nine naval subjects were added to the course of study: Navy Regulations, Naval Law, International Law, Types and Characteristics of Naval ships and aircraft, Tactics and Manoeuvering, Ship Drills, Gunnery, Communications and Damage Control. The instruction in these subjects was to be given the form of lectures by commissioned and active duty Naval officers. Second, the Bureau of Navigation, under the authority of the Secretary of the Navy, issued instructions to local Naval District Commandants providing for the admission of nautical school students in the Naval Reserve as Merchant Marine Cadets, in accordance with the Naval Reserve Act, approved June 25, 1938. Third, the Chief of Bureau of Navigation and the Chief of Naval Operations recommended to the Secretary of the Navy that appropriate steps be taken to secure from the Maritime Commission the allocation of funds for the construction of suitable vessels as replacements for the then present State schoolships, as necessary; these ships were to be of such a character as to be readily usable as naval auxiliaries in an emergency. The recommendation was immediately approved by the Secretary of the Navy. Thus was the inception of the Merchant Marine Midshipman Reserve program which provided the beginnings of Naval Science Program at the Maritime Academies. The New York State Maritime Academy was the first of the schools to open its doors to Naval instructors in 1939; by the end of the year, a big gun found its way to Fort Schuyler.

NYSMA cadets marching at World's Fair 1939.
Soon thereafter, with the storm clouds of war looming over the Atlantic, civilian instructors the Nautical Schools joined the Merchant Marine Reserve and sewed the new insignia on their reefer jackets. By 1940 the criteria for valid wearers of the insignia was broadened to include staff officers licensed under the Bureau of Marine Inspection and serving on ships with certificated of registry issued by the Secretary of Commerce under contract with the Maritime Commission. That same year, Merchant Marine officers employed by or under the supervision of the U.S. Maritime Commission and enlisted members of the Naval Reserve who were actually licensed and serving as licensed officers were authorized to wear the insignia. And other Naval Reserve Officers serving on merchant ships or under the supervision of the United States Maritime Commission were authorized to wear it; with the same stipulation that it not be worn on the Navy uniform.

On the coattails of the limited National Emergency of September 8, 1939, Roosevelt declared a National Emergency on June 27, 1940; and finally an Unlimited National Emergency on May 27, 1941. The first declaration brought with it the activation of the Naval Fleet Reserve; the last, all members of the Naval Reserve not in deferred status were called to active duty. Members of the Merchant Marine Reserve immediately found themselves in reserve officer status if on requisitioned ships between the former and later declarations as per the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 Title III Section 302(g). Along with them, on October 5, 1940, cadets of the Maritime Commission aboard these ships were placed on active duty as Midshipmen, Merchant Marine Reserve due to previous Maritime Commission and Navy interagency agreements. By early 1942:
[...]There were 60 cadets serving as Midshipman, Merchant Marine Reserve, on active duty on Merchant Marine vessels taken over by the Navy.
The school ships of the state maritime academies were not taken out of auxiliary status and activated; thus, students and non-Naval Reserve instructors remained unaffected. At the same time, with the allocation of government funds and provision of schoolships, schools (now academies) had their training programs vetted by the Maritime Commission. However, these same instructors became inducted into the Maritime Commission’s uniformed training organization – the Maritime Service. With the final action, came membership in the Merchant Marine Reserve. After the formal declaration of war on December 8, 1941:
The Supervisor,  three Assistant Supervisors, the three District Cadet Training Instructors, the three Commanding Officers of Cadet Schools, and almost all Cadet Training Instructors in districts and at Cadet Schools hold licenses as officers of the Merchant Marine, and commissions in the United States Naval Reserve.  On January 6, 1942, the Navy ordered these Naval Reserve officer instructors to active duty status.
It may be due to creative thinking by a Navy supply officer, a Maritime Commission purser or New York uniform supply house salesman, but Corps of Cadets members began to sporadically wear the insignia in 1940.  This would be due to a perceived de facto, and not codified de jure reserve status of the cadets and cadets holding a nominal officer status.  Ship officers, as defined by U.S. law, are those sailing under or holding a license as issued by the US Bureau of Marine Inspection.  Nautical tradition held that cadets were officers-in-training with rank below the lowest officer grade but rating privileges held by a mid-level unlicensed mariner.  Some shipboard cadets, known as "cadet officers", previously held licenses but did not sail under them, and could conceivably claim  Merchant Marine Reserve status.  Others cadets perhaps (and did) don the insignia while on ships activated during the first emergency periods.  Either way, on paper this insignia was only valid while in active employ aboard merchant vessels.  If a ship were seized directly by the Navy, cadets became midshipmen - as happened to some merchantmen namely oilers and Maritime Commission designed freighters - and were officially barred from wearing the insignia on their uniforms aboard ship.  Moreover, the regulations did not state that the insignia was not for midshipmen, rather licensed officers.

It is worth mentioning that the personnel of the Merchant Marine, Government Marine (e.g. Army Transport Service and Coast and Geodetic Survey) and Armed Marine (US Navy and Coast Guard) shared similar trades, but diverged in organizational culture. The Merchant Marine sailor of the late 1930s suffered through the deprivations of the Great Depression and union struggles against shipowners. Except for ship officers, many held no particular allegiance to ship or employer. With the Jones Act, foreign colleagues were ejected from vessels, thereby removing skilled labor, and introducing gaps in overall ship manning. Depending on the union, mariners could be militantly left-leaning or thoroughly apathetic in their daily struggle to make a living. The Navy rank and file also came from the same lower-middle-class background as the merchant sailors – although tempered by grueling training and autocratic hierarchy. Men in the Regular Navy took a dim view of civilians and reservists on shore and in their midst. Many officers of the former worked their way from the deck to the pilothouse; a small number came from the nautical schools and academies. Most active Navy officers came from the Naval Academy where they were molded and inducted into an efficient warrior class. It is at this intersection where academy graduates and the service found themselves: outsiders making an entrance into an unforgiving hierarchy bound by custom and regulation. It is no surprise that despite coexisting on the same waterfronts, the two groups held each other at arm’s length.

Nevertheless, only after the formal granting of Midshipman, Merchant Marine Reserve status to all cadets in state and federal maritime academies in August 1942 – some months after the move of the East Coast Corps of Cadets from Fort Schuyler to their permanent home at Kings Point – did the mass distribution of the insignia to all Corps of Cadets members occur. This was done by the administrators of the Merchant Marine Academies, not the Navy. Absent is period documentation indicating Navy complicity. However, the insignia was only granted after a cadet completed preliminary training in basic Navy Science and swearing an oath. This oath was not compulsory but was done by all cadets. In fact, the Maritime Commission distributed a pamphlet depicting the insignia as an award granted cadets: “U.S. Naval Reserve Insignia Worn by Cadets of U. S. Maritime Commission and Officers of Merchant Marine Enrolled in Naval Reserve.”  Interestingly, at the time of press in early 1942, cadets were not yet called cadet-midshipmen.

State maritime academy cadets did not wear the insignia at any point up to October 1942; graduating class photos attest to this fact. The lack of insignia would not be due to the absence of a Naval Science curriculum; a course of study created by a gentlemen’s agreement in 1938, and put into practice in 1939 – which coincidentally was the same year that the Corps of Cadets was invited to the NYSMA grounds by then Superintendent Tomb. Nor did not having Midshipmen, Reserve status; which state cadets were afforded in August 1942. Nor even lack of connection to the Maritime Commission; with accepting federal monies and federal ships with which came Federal curricula and staff. It would be due to a creative reading of provisions of wear of the Merchant Marine Reserve insignia did the Corps of Cadets come to wear the insignia; and a rather conservative reading that state cadets did not. It is notable in that the wide-spread distribution of the insignia to cadets only came with Tomb coming to Kings Point a month after its inception as the first superintendent in April 1942.

Kings Point, from its outset, was linked strongly to NYSMA, although both diverged in raison d’être. The NYSMA was created to educate young men from New York for the maritime industry operating out of the Port of New York. The Maritime Commission Corps of Cadets, to bring young men from around the country without access to state schools, the opportunity to become licensed officers of the subsidized blue-water U.S. Merchant Marine. Thus, having looked at the successful model of staffing, cadet structure and uniforming, the early Merchant Marine Academy had similar components as the NYSMA. There was a strong cross-pollination of Kings Point and NYSMA instructors and potential students, Kings Point copying NYSMA regimental and honor system and using practically the same uniforms. At the permanent establishment of the NYSMA at Fort Schuyler, Tomb hailed the facility as being the future Annapolis of the U.S. Merchant Marine; after his transfer to Kings Point, he hailed the Merchant Marine Academy as the same. As such, there existed a friendly rivalry between the two. The mass distribution of the badge, and with it, a perceived honor status, can be viewed as a slight affront to – perhaps even antagonizing – the older school. NYSMA was hampered by New York bureaucracy and its expansion plans stymied by Federal land use provisos and local political posturing.  In this light, the Superintendent’s letter makes sense; as does that of the Commandant, Third Naval District. In essence, if the upstart institution may have the insignia, then so should NYSMA – or vice-versa. Whatever the case may be, all maritime academies, having their cadets subject to Midshipmen, Reserve status and the blessing of the Chief of Naval Personnel secured the insignia on October 26, 1942 – but not in time for the big New York Navy Day parade just two days prior. Thus, as an administrative matter in 1942, the Chief of Naval Personnel authorized Merchant Marine Midshipmen, USNR, under instruction at the state maritime academies, to wear the Merchant Marine Insignia on their academy uniforms, since these academies were under the supervision of the War Shipping Administration.

...

Post-war saw a change in the military establishment’s view of the role of the Merchant Marine as an auxiliary and the desirability of Merchant Mariners in its reserves. In 1951, the Navy regulations were revised, and only cadets who were Midshipmen, USNR, at the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy were allowed to wear the insignia on their academy uniforms – not on their uniforms if shipping out or serving on commissioned Naval vessels. With the 1952 abolition of the Merchant Marine Reserve under Public Law 467 by the 82nd Congress, came the resultant removing Midshipman, USNR status from Merchant Marine Academy cadets and therefore the eligibility of wearing the Merchant Marine Reserve Insignia. Despite being granted Federal status, having a military character and Naval Science courses, Merchant Marine Academy cadets became simply “officer candidates.”   This touched off a controversy in that one of the selling points in a Merchant Marine Academy (state or Federal) education were draft-deferment or exemption and the possibility to be granted a commission in the U.S. Navy upon graduation. Gone was the pin, escape clause, and privileges. However, due to an administrative oversight, cadets continued wearing the badge until mid-1954 with its overall disappearance on cadet uniforms in 1956. Apparently, the California Maritime Academy administration must not have gotten the memo, as in 1958, 18 of 50 graduates were sporting the insignia; in 1959, however, the insignia was absent. 1964 saw with the re-institution of the merchant marine naval reserve status at Kings Point; only to have it abolished in 1965 and superseded by a Naval Reserve commission for the class of 1968 with accompanying badge reappearance.

The state academies had to wait until 1977 when their cadets became Midshipmen, USNR, of the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) to pin the insignia back on their uniforms. Beginning in 1980, those cadets who signed a Training and Service Agreement and became Midshipmen, USNR, were also authorized to wear the Merchant Marine Reserve Insignia. Up until recently, all Midshipmen USNR enrolled in maritime training programs leading to a merchant marine license, were eligible to wear the insignia.

With the start of the Merchant Marine Reserve, U.S. Naval Reserve (MMR, USNR) program in 1977, the insignia was authorized for the first time for wear on the Navy uniform of officers by this officer community. The requirement for wear was published in the 1978 Navy Uniform Regulations:
To be eligible to wear this insignia, Naval Reservists must meet one of the following requirements:

a.  Be licensed merchant marine officers who sail on their license at least four months every two years and are members of the MMR , USNR program.
b.  Be officers in the Maritime Service holding merchant marine licenses and who are instructors at Federal, State and Regional Academies, and at industry, or union maritime schools who are members of the MMR, USNR, program.
c.  Be merchant marine officers holding licenses as Chief Mate/First Assistant Engineer/Radio Officer or higher, with eight years of licensed sailing experience and currently employed in a maritime related position ashore, and who are members of the MMR, USNR program.
Strategic Sealift Officer Warfare Insignia

On June 10, 2012, a change in the Merchant Marine, U.S. Naval Reserve program resulted in it being called the Strategic Sealift Officer program, and along with it a replacement of insignia. The new device, Strategic Sealift Officer Warfare Insignia, will be available in May 2013. Despite patterns yet to be struck:
The SSOWI is approved for wear by officers who have successfully completed the qualification requirements outlined in OPNAVINST 1534.1D. The insignia is gold in color and is two and three-quarter inches by seven eighths of an inch in dimension, reflecting the background of an eagle from the USS Constitution's stern, crossed naval officer swords and a U.S. shield with fouled anchor from the U.S. Merchant Marine flag. The SSOWI will be available in two sizes (normal and miniature). The normal size SSOWI shall be worn on all uniforms, less dinner dress. The miniature SSOWI shall be worn with miniature medals on dinner dress uniforms.
Good to know, I guess.  To the way of the shadow box and collector the illustrious "Sea Chicken" - once symbol of the larger debate of how Merchant Mariners figure in U.S. National Defense - shall go.

References
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Education.  Public Document 42:  III Annual Report of the Commissioners of the Massachusetts Nautical School for the Year Ending November 30, 1938.  Boston:  Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1938.

U.S. Congress.  Naval auxiliaries for use in the Merchant marine. Hearings before a special subcommittee of the Committee on Naval Affairs, House of Representatives, Sixty-third Congress, second session, on S. 5259, a bill to establish one or more United States Navy mail lines between the United States, South America, and Europe; and H.R. 5980, a bill to authorize the President of the United States to build or acquire steamships for use as naval auxiliaries and transports, and to arrange for the use of these ships when not needed for such service, and to make an appropriation therefor.  Washington D.C.: GPO, August 1914.


Original design of insignia as found in Uniform Board notes 1938.
usnr badge design

Dating the Merchant Marine Reserve Insignia is not very tricky. There are two main variations in design and two types: stamped metal and embroidered. The former continued to be worn until 2012 with planned phase-out in 2013. The embroidered device fell out of use in the mid-1950s along with all embroidered badges on US Navy officer uniforms. It has the interesting quality of being one of the longest-lived badges in the Navy and least awarded.

1938-1941
usnr insignia

usnr insignia

The first pattern, as noted in the text is the own left-facing eagle.  It was issued until mid-1941.

This specific item is part of a Panama Railroad Steamship Company pursur grouping.  It is displayed along with a Merchant Marine Defense Ribbon; meaning it was worn at least until mid-Second World War.

1939-1940
usnr insignia

usnr insignia

This is a gold-plated pin from the pre-war period.  It was issued prior to mid-1941.  The insignia lacks a hallmark; as is the case with many pre-war items.

This item is of particular interest as it comes from a U.S. Maritime Commission Corps of Cadets cadet grouping dating to the regiment's sojourn at Fort Schuyler.  Of interest is the fact that the original owner was relatively old at the time of enrollment, being 22; meaning he was probably a "cadet officer" and sailed under his license until Navy enlistment in 1943.  At the time college students were less apt to drop their course of study to join the Corps of Cadets, with hawsepipers making up a handful of cadets during this period.

1942
usnr insignia

usnr insignia

This is a Vanguard insignia that comes from a U.S. Merchant Marine Academy graduate that ended up being a junior radio officer; or a radio officer attached to the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy. Further research is required on my part.

usnr insignia

1943
...

The above is from March 1943 granted after the Acceptance of Appointment as Midshipman, Merchant Marine in the U.S. Naval Reserve.

...

1944
usnr insignia

usnr insignia

Embroidery of the insignia was still of a high standard in 1944. Notice the overall difference with...

1945
usnr insignia

usnr insignia

1946
The following two insignias are from 1946.  Do note the difference in embroidery.

usnr insignia

usnr insignia

The first is on a black wool backing for wear with the USMMA dress jacket as well as on the Service Dress Blue coat.

The second is on a khaki twill backing; it was sewn on the khaki working coat.  This is an unusual example, as previously, cadet-midshipmen were directed to wear the pin device on khaki - khaki was commonly steamed, as opposed to dry-cleaned like the worsted wool.  When the pin was reinstated, this failed experiment was not repeated, as khaki working coats were no longer in a cadets-midshipman's sea bag.

usnr insignia

The third device, with a Coro hallmark, also dates from the same period and was worn on dress whites of the period.

usnr insignia

usnr insignia

usnr insignia

2010
usnr insignia

The last item is a Vanguard insignia from 2010.  It was manufactured by International Insignia in Providence, Rhode Island.  Many Vanguard insignia items are actually jobbed out to International Insignia as Vanguard in recent years has apparently found contracting low volume orders more cost effective than striking them inhouse.  Notable would be the occasional IOH I-21 as opposed to V-21-N hallmark.

usnr insignia

Saturday, January 14, 2012

Robin Line

Robin Line, 1942-1948
Robin Line ship officer hat badge.
Three piece construction.
Eagle and shield sterling; wreath brass/gold-plate. Company insigne brass and enamel. Late Second World War era.
badge: 60mm x 65mm

On the second page of the March 17, 1954 edition of the Wilton Connecticut Bulletin there is long column about a GOP Sunday Tea. The Bulletin reports that the tea was a breezy affair attended by the community's upper crust; although not mentioned was the striking absence of Arthur Lewis, Jr. This would be explained by a single line next to the column reading: "Arthur Lewis Dies", followed by  a pithy obit - speaking nothing about his frantic life nor his high-paced career or even funeral arrangements.  Perhaps the same-page announcement of solo-trumpeter Roland Kutik indicated him more a town favorite than the two decade cut-throat steamship executive.

On his first vacation in years, Arthur R. Lewis, Jr. died of a heart attack in sunny Fort Lauderdale. He was the workaholic president of Seas Shipping Company, whose main and best-known subsidiary was the Robin Line. Lewis' professional life was driven by his twin obsessions: profits and desire to crush his firm's competition - the Farrell Line. The Robin Line and Farrell Line rivalry was one of the most vicious and vindictive rate wars in United States maritime history. This is striking in that the Lewis and Farrell families once shared a close personal and business relationship; in fact the Robin Line was established in 1920 by his father, Arthur R. Lewis, Sr. in concert with the Farrell family. Robin Line ships operated in the intercoastal trade as auxiliaries to various Farrell concerns; mainly the Isthmian Steamship Company - the US Steel shipping company - and the American South African Line - in which Lewis, Sr. had partial ownership. However for reasons not public and perhaps secreted away in the exclusive India House, this immediate and irreconcilable rift between the families resulted in the 1933 separation of ownership and management of all shared firms. The Farrells ended up with full control of the American South African Line and the Argonaut Line; the Lewises gained the Sea Shipping Company and its Robin Line.

Soon afer the division of interests, Lewis, Sr. died and his son took up his mantle with gusto. Lewis, Jr. continued to operate the Robin Line's four ships in the intercoastal trade and did not foray into international shipping. Relations between the families remained combative, and the opportunity for Lewis to strike a blow against the Farrells presented itself in the person of Sylvester J. Maddock. Maddock, an employee fired by the Farrells, convinced Lewis to bring the Robin Line into the African trade in 1935. As general agent, Maddock knew the ports and shippers in Africa and thus was able to build up the cargo volumes for the Robin Line at the expense of the American South African Line.

When the United States Shipping Board established direct service between the United States and South Africa, British lines - which prior operated a triangular service via the British Isles and other regions - decided to mimic the American model to diminish the upstart competition in a once sole British preserve. In order to avoid destructive competition between each other and to stave off British ascendancy, the American lines involved in the trade, following the same framework for other regional conferences and agreed in 1924 to establish the U.S.A.-South Africa Conference. The Conference set rates, routes and number of sailings for its members. This was an outward conference with jurisdiction only over cargoes leaving the United States; the lines created a separate complimentary body - the South Africa-U.S.A. Conference - with jurisdiction over the inbound cargoes coming from South Africa to the United States. Although South Africa was the center of the trade, the conference, in spite of its title, held an undefined jurisdiction for decades over the east and west coasts of Africa, as far north as the Azores and the Canary Islands on the west coast of Africa and up to Tanzania on the east. When the Robin Line applied for membership in the conference in 1935, James A. Farrell, Jr., blocked the application, thus initiating a bitter rate war. To try to drive the Robin Line from the trade, the Farrells orchestrated the U.S.A.-South Africa Conference to reduce its rates from twenty dollars to eight dollars a ton, and eventually to four dollars; this last figure barely covered half of operating costs, and as a result both companies including the other conference members were taking heavy losses on each voyage. The Robin Line did not collapse, however, because it was shipping large volumes of automobiles to South Africa for Chrysler and Ford. When the Robin Line bid for membership in the Conference again as a way of ending the rate war in 1936, the Farrell family once again had the application rejected. The Farrels felt confident in the liquidity of the American South African Line since it had the advantage of a generous US mail contract under the provisions of the Merchant Marine Act of 1928 to keep it afloat; yet despite the lack of such a contract, the Robin Line managed to survive. The rate war continued until 1937, when a reduction in the government subsidy at last forced the Farrell family to call it off; but losses had been so great that the American South African Line was on the verge of bankruptcy and saved only by profits garnered from other Farrell shipping interests in the Atlantic trade.

In 1938 the Robin Line managed to secure its own subsidy from the U.S. Maritime Commission, and the next year the Second World War with its high shipping rates temporarily served to halt the destructive competition. At the same time the Robin Line gained entrance into the much-coveted conference.  Flush with cash and subsidies, the Robin Line acquired several new ships for the first time in almost a decade.  These new ships were streamlined and were dubbed the "best-looking" freighters on the oceans by mariners at the time. With the ubiquitous automobile, farm and road-building equipment cargoes inbound, the Robin Line carried rock lobsters (crayfish), exotic timber, gold bullion and freight-neutral diamond cargoes outbound. These new ships were known for their extensive refrigeration plants for the former and welded-shut safe compartments for the latter, and smart crew accommodations.

Although the two lines remained rivals, they preferred to respect the agreements of the U.S.A.-South Africa Conference. During the Second World War, the vessels of both lines were requisitioned, and both operated government ships for the War Shipping Administration under ships husband agreements. After the return of peace, the two lines resumed their bitter rivalry. In hearings before the U.S. Maritime Commission, the Robin Line, because of the opposition from the Farrell Line, lost the subsidies on the route from U.S. Atlantic ports to West Africa in 1947. However, when Farrell declined to handle the unusually large volume of automobile exports to South Africa, the Robin Line - who previously provided the service and won lasting goodwill among the automobile exporters - took up the slack to its benefit. In 1955 the last of the British lines withdrew from the route, leaving as active conference members only the Robin and Farrell Lines (American South African Lines renamed) in the region.

With Lewis, Jr.'s death none of the family members wished to follow his breakneck work ethic, instead they elected Winthrop O. Cook as Seas Shipping Company new president. As president, Cook found before him the expensive task of replacing the company's old wartime surplus vessels. Instead of investing in a costly and immediately unprofitable project, Lewis' heirs decided to avoid the problem altogether and sold the Robin Line to Moore-McCormack in March 1957; making a tidy profit, as seen in the transaction records as argued before United States Court of Appeals Second Circuit (371 F.2d 528): "Seas Shipping Company, Inc., sold ten ships to Moore-McCormack Lines, Inc. [...] for $5,466,668 in cash and notes and 300,000 shares of Mooremac stock." Soon thereafter, the new owner removed the vessels of the former Robin Line from the African trade, leaving only the Farrell Line in the U.S.A.-South Africa Conference.

House Flags of Robin Line
  • Blue with a white lozenge bearing a red R. 1920-1942.
  • Blue with a white oval in the hoist, with a stylized wing with three sections sweeping toward the fly; oval contains red R. 1942-1957.
Ships of Robin Line
It is worth noting that the Robin Line was so called because all its ship names began with the word "Robin".

Pre-War

Robin Adair (built at close of the Great War by Skinner & Eddy Shipyard, Seattle)
Robin Doncaster
Robin Goodfellow
Robin Gray

Second World War (1942-1948)

Robin Adair
Robin Doncaster
Robin Goodfellow
Robin Gray
Robin Locksley
Robin Sherwood
Robin Tuxford
Robin Wentley
Post-War (1948-1955)
Robin Doncaster
Robin Goodfellow
Robin Gray
Robin Hood
Robin Kettering
Robin Kirk
Robin Locksley
Robin Mowbray
Robin Sherwood
Robin Trent
Robin Tuxford
Robin Wentley

1955-1957

Robin Doncaster
Robin Gray
Robin Hood
Robin Kettering
Robin Kirk
Robin Locksley
Robin Sherwood
Robin Trent
Robin Tuxford
Robin Wenley

Moore-McCormack purchase (1957)

Robin Gray
Robin Hood
Robin Kirk
Robin Locksley
Robin Mowbray
Robin Sherwood
Robin Trent

Principal Executives
Arthur R. Lewis, Sr.: 1920-1933
Arthur R. Lewis, Jr.: 1934-1954
Winthrop O. Cook: 1954-1957

References
The Decisions volumes are particularly interesting as they document legislative activities around and Robin Lines gripes with the U.S.A.-South Africa Conference; relevant entries may be found under Seas Shipping Company.  Interestingly, the Maritime Commission and its successor Federal Maritime Board did not lend a kind ear to Lewis. Albion's monograph is interesting in that it is an economic history of the South Africa trade with a focus on the Farrell Line; it presents the family in a positive light and takes an apologetic approach to its foreign-flag activities, anti-union stance and ignores overall poor crew conditions; Lewis and the rate war is mentioned practically in passing.

"Arthur Lewis Dies." Bulletin, Wilton Connecticut. March 17, 1954: p 2.

Obituary. New York Times, March 17, 1954.

Federal Maritime Board. Decisions, Vol. 4, 1952-1956. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1963.

U.S. Maritime Commission. Decisions, Vol. 3, 1947-1952. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1963.

War Shipping Administration. United States Maritime Service Training Manual, Deck Branch Training. Washington, D.C.: Maritime Service, 1943. p. 45.

Robert G. Albion. Seaports South of Sahara: The Achievements of an American Steamship Service. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts, 1959.

Rene De La Pedraja.  A Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Merchant Marine and Shipping Industry: Since the Introduction of Steam.  New York:  Greenwood, 1994.

Colin Stewart. Flags, Funnels and Hull Colours. London: Adlard Coles Ltd., 1957.

Captain Frederick James Newdigate Wedge. Brown's Flags and Funnels of British and Foreign Steamship Companies, 5th Edition. Glasgow: Brown, Son & Ferguson, 1951.

United States Court of Appeals Second Circuit. 371 F.2d 528: Seas Shipping Company, Inc., Petitioner, v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Respondent. Argued December 1, 1966 Decided January 16, 1967.

Many kind thanks to Captain Jack Misner for sharing his recollections of his time with the Robin Line.


Robin Line, Hat badge, obverse
Eagle and shield sterling; wreath brass/gold-plate. Company insigne brass and enamel.
Second World War era.
Mounted on wool backing and mohair band.
badge: 60mm x 65mm

This badge uses the US Maritime Service officer hat badge as a base and has the the anchor device replaced with a company insigne. As mentioned in previous posts, this was a common practice followed during the Second World War by ship officers throughout industry. This particular badge is interesting is that it does not use the company house flag on the the badge, rather a bow design element. Some Robin Line ships used the Blue-White-Red wings flanking the R in oval device on the bow; the slight incline of the R denotes speed, which the Line was famous for.

Do note the high degree of corrosion on exposed copper/brass elements and chipped enamel.
The insigne is without or has a corrosion obscured hallmark. I am unable to remove the the badge from backing to determine any hallmarks on the other component elements; the top keeper nut is welded in place by corrosion.

Robin Line, 1942-1948

Robin Line, Hat badge, obverse detail

IMG_2914a

Robin Line, 1942-1948

Robin Line, 1942-1948

Robin Line, 1942-1948


Robin Line, Hat badge, backing and mohair band detail

Robin Line, 1942-1948

Robin Line, 1942-1948

Robin Line, coat lapel badge
No hallmark. Gold-plate brass. Second World War era.

This badge would be found in pairs on either coat lapel of a ship officer's reefer. This badge is gold-plated brass, with most of the gold rubbed away. Although the badge itself is without a readable hallmark, the pin snap has a miniscule H&H (Hilborn & Hamburg) star hallmark on its face and is marked Sterling.

Robin Line, 1942-1948

Robin Line

Saturday, December 31, 2011

British Antarctic Survey



A maxim in many a post-modern and structural Anthropology or cultural history course during my tenure at the University of Virginia and Brown University, and brief sojourns at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa and the Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa held common by my colleagues and instructors was that to better understand a society, inquiry should be directed to those on the periphery.  Furthermore, by gross example, these marginal or liminal groups may either amplify or atrophy discrete structural patterns in the greater society, thus aiding the social scientist in testing theories about cultural universals in the studied society.  This is not a novel idea, the theoretical practice of probing cases on the extreme was explored by leading naturalists and scientists of the nineteenth, twentieth and our own centuries; among them: Charles Darwin who synthesized observations gathered on his voyages aboard the HMS Beagle about evolution, and Walter Falcon Scott journalling weather patterns on his treks across Antarctica.  Extending the argument somewhat by using the same critical modality as those in the social sciences, the student of the British maritime establishment may learn much by casting a thoughtful gaze at the history, uniforms, and traditions of those serving aboard Royal Research vessels of the British Antarctic Survey.  This post will address the first two points.

The British Antarctic Survey's (BAS) history, by virtue of its mission and unique circumstance, mirrors that of the United Kingdom's polar adventures. It may trace its immediate lineage to the halcyon days of heroic exploration by Shackleton and Scott, and Second World War secret Royal Naval expeditions of Operation Tabarin I and II.  The BAS first answered to the Colonial Office as the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS), and then later as the BAS proper to the National Environmental Research Council (NERC); through these organizational permutations, the ships themselves remained Royal Research Vessels, and mariners civilian.

British scientific interest and exploration of the South Pole began in earnest during the early 1830s with the charting expeditions of John Biscoe.  Following him, the Royal Society and Admiralty, through private donation and public subscription, brought a small, but steady stream of explorers to the Antarctic.  These men-of-science, experiencing the extremes of human endurance, ventured to the continent and its surrounding seas questioning everything from geologic history to ionosphere behavior and photo-plankton life-cycles.  Ships of the period were whalers, borrowed naval ships, and the rare purposefully refitted vessel; all carrying men and materiel to the great ice-shelf and battered polar islands or purposefully (or not) acting as an ice-bound wintering-over base. With fits and starts, exploratory activity was bound by contemporaneous technology; only once the elements could be withstood, did survey give way to dashes to interior peaks and foundation of research camps.  Antarctica played host to scores of international researchers during this heady time - with Great Britain leading the pack.  Then came war, and Antarctic exploration was largely abandoned.  After a decade lull in activity inaugurated by the Great War and broken by Shackleton in 1925, scientific curiosity tempered by national prestige became the new face of exploration; the independent amateur adventurer bowed out to the Royally warranted researcher. It is at this juncture at the cusp of end of the Heroic Age of Polar Exploration that the Royal Research Ship or Vessel - with alternate prefixes RRS, RRV or RARV - took the stage.



The Royal Charter of research vessels began with the 1923 Crown purchase of the Discovery for the Royally warranted 1925 Discovery Expedition. This ship was the same three-master which carried Robert Falcon Scott and Ernest Shackleton on their 1901-1904 expeditions. Curiously, not coterminous with Discovery's refitting, flags and crests were not created, rather only official uniforms designed (which we shall return to later) - the former happened when British territorial claims in Antarctica were no longer an international afterthought in the late 1960s.  Royal pomp aside, the purpose of the Royal Research Ship was to provide a support platform for scientific endeavor in and around the Antarctic.  Beginning with the astounding success of the RRS Discovery and its crew, the Crown continued its patronage and warranted vessels up until the present day.  And, with the charter of Discovery, a precedent for Admiralty provision of vessels began.  RRS vessels, in turn, were manned by individuals under contract by the organizations which were given the vessels.   Thus, under FIDS, the Royal Fleet Auxiliary under Admiralty proviso placed crew on RRS until the 1962 dissolution of FIDS, and the dual creation of NERC and BAS.  At this point responsibility for the personnel and ships of the RRS fleet - which grew to include oceanographic, fisheries, polar and Antarctic research vessels - was handed to NERC, with the noted exception of the former; it became the province of the British Antarctic Survey.

In its various guises the BAS fleet was never very large, and ships' crew few.  These individuals were (and are) members of the British Merchant Navy and as such are British or British nationals of one sort or another.  During its days as a Falklands Islands Dependencies Survey auxiliary, with long layovers in Stanley (where BAS vessels are flagged and homeport) many a BAS seaman was a Falkland Islander; these days, with off-season dry-docking in the British Isles, this is no longer the case.  At this writing, there are two Royal Research vessels chartered for use by the BAS, the RRS James Clark Ross and the RRS Ernest Shackleton.  Their respective compliment is 80 (11 Officers, 15 Crew, 1 Doctor and 52 Scientific Personnel) and 72 (22 Officers/Crew and 50 Scientific Personnel).  They are run as standard British Merchant Navy Vessels with their organization an outgrowth of a century-old tradition of a division of ship navigation and cargo handling, propulsion and victualing.  As such, each member of the crew has a highly circumscribed role with no overlap in responsibilities among the licensed officers.  Other members of the crew work as a team within their group; however, if holding a specific trade, a crewman works within that in conjunction with their Department; in other words, a motorman would not find himself in catering. This classic departmental division is also found on Royal Navy vessels, but that is where the similarity both begins and ends - BAS vessels, despite being subject to Admiralty rulings, have  no connection with the Royal Navy; although, in theory a reserve Royal Navy officer may serve onboard, but not in the capacity of a warrior.  Using the RRS James Clark Ross as our model (the RRS Ernest Shackleton has a different manning level due to the type of vessel),  the onboard organization is comprised of  Deck, Engineering, and Catering Departments; respectively, each has its province in the superstructure, amidships and the galley.   The Radio Officer, otherwise colloquially known as "Comms man", despite spending most of his time in the bridge is in organizational purview of the Engineering Department, yet reports to the ship's Captain.  Each of the three Departments' compliment with responsibilities is as follows:

Deck

  • Captain - Command of the vessel and overall commanding officer.  On the RRS James Clark Ross, he is dubbed the traditional "Old Man"  and sometimes the more playful "Daddy."
  • Chief Officer - The executive officer of the ship.  Involved in the quotidian concerns of the Deck Department.  He is also responsible for the stability of the ship, loading and discharging cargo, and feeder boat operations.
  • Second Officer - Responsible for the passage planning and maintaining the chart portfolio, including navigational corrections.
  • Third Officer - The most junior Deck Officer is responsible for maintaining much of the Life Saving Equipment.
  • Bosun - In charge of the Deck Crew.  His is not a licensed officer's position (likewise as are his subordinates); an approximate US Navy relative position would be that of Chief Petty Officer.
  • Bosun's Mate - This position is subaltern to that of the Bosun.  His responsibilities involve sounding the all the fresh water and ballast tanks.
  • AB's (Able Bodied Seamen) - On the RRS James Clark Ross they are the general deck hands.  The ship carries five.
BAS vessels follow a standard Merchant Navy and Royal Navy watch system.  The Chief,  2nd and 3rd Officer are on watches when at sea.  The Chief does 4-8, 3rd 8-12, and 2nd 12-4.  Also on watch are one of the five AB's who rotate, with two on day work for a week and the other three on watches. The only change in Deck compliment is that from time to time, an additional Deck Officer might join the ship to work with the scientists in the deployment and recovery of equipment.  At times, like most British-flag vessels, the crew may be augmented by a singular cadet.

Engine

  • Chief Engineer - He has an equivalent rank to that of the Captain but it would be unusual for him to ever have command of the ship.  His responsibilities include overseeing all aspects ship's propulsion and internal mechanics.
  • 2nd Engineer - Responsible for the day to day running of the Engine Room.
  • 3rd and 4th Engineer - Assist the 2nd as required and directed.
  • Deck Engineer.  Responsible for scientific and supporting equipment, such as winches and gantries.
  • ETO(L) - Electrician.  Responsible for all the electrical equipment onboard.
  • ETO(C) - Communications (Radioman).  Maintains all communications and navigational equipment.  The two ETO's work in tandem with some jobs being covered by both.
  • Motormen - They are highly skilled unlicensed crewmembers; in terms of position, are crucial to the function of the Engine Department.  Prior to the advent of modern training, they were the "old hands" which would undo the mistakes of younger or less experienced engineers as well as serving in the traditional role of providing extra hands.  On the RRS James Clark Ross there are two; they perform engineering tasks allowing the licensed engineers to execute more difficult jobs.
Catering
  • Purser - In charge of the Catering Department.  He is also responsible for storing the vessel with victuals and the office of keeping ship's accommodations clean and tidy.  He also acts in the role as a "hotel manager" and looks after the needs of visiting scientists and passengers.
  • Chief Cook - In charge of the Galley; he rates a Petty Officer.
  • Assistant Cook - Second in charge.  He is responsible for baking the bread each day.
  • Chief Steward - Responsible for looking after the accommodations.
  • Stewards - Two work for the Chief Steward and one assists in the Galley.
Medical
  • Doctor - The ship has a hospital and when working in Southern waters or "down south" it carries a single doctor.  Historically, the doctor joined the ship in Great Britain and sailed for the entire season; however, as of late, he joined the ship in the Falkland Islands.  The rationale for this change is that in terms of economics, a there has not been a need for one on the Atlantic passage.  Nor is one carried in Arctic waters.

Aboard BAS vessels of today, only the officers have undress uniforms.  Aside from the Deck Officers and the Purser, it is only worn at meal times.  Engineer officers spend their day in working gear or boiler suits and tend to only get changed into uniform for dinner in the evening.  The compliment of the ship and visiting scientists messes are divided among the three groups:  officers, scientists and unlicensed crew.  The Crew all eat in the Crew Mess, with the officers and scientists eating in the Officer's and Scientists Saloon.  Furthermore, following traditions mentioned elsewhere, Stewards wear a uniform while serving in the Saloon.

The RRS James Clark Ross and the RRS Ernest Shackleton operate in different ways, hence the difference in compliment.  Both will move scientists around and act as supply vessels, delivering all the equipment that is required to run an Antarctic Base.  The RRS James Clark Ross tends to the small island of Signy (summer only), Bird Island and South Georgia, as well as the serving as the main relief for Rothera.  The RRS Ernest Shackleton does the relief of Halley each year and then visits the smaller BAS bases.  Both ships take waste as and when required.

Like the original Royal Research vessels, The RRS James Clark Ross acts as a floating scientific platform.  Scientists will join the ship, bringing specialist equipment with them.  The ship will give them accommodation and computing facilities, and then interface their equipment to the ship.  Equipment is as varied as low/high-pressure hydraulics, and electricity in the many forms that it can be turned into interacting with hot/cold water and salt water.  The vessel travels to locations specified by the scientists and deploys the equipment as required.  A typical science cruise on the RRS James Clark Ross will last six or seven weeks.   This upcoming season, the RRS James Clark Ross will carry out about ten or eleven science cruises, with some being complete dedicated cruises for a singular purpose, while others are fitted into other work and may only take a few days or weeks.

An early group photograph of officers on the RRS Sir William Scoresby show them in Merchant Navy garb, with a few unique embellishments.  These uniforms were recently new innovations for the British Mercantile Marine quum Merchant Navy.   In the years that followed the Great War, King George V honored the British Mercantile Marine for its valiant service rendered to the Empire in the face of battle by giving it the official moniker of Merchant Navy with the Prince of Wales as its Master.  This title underscored the fact that British merchantmen were Royal Navy auxiliaries and could be pressed into service in the event of a national emergency; it is worth noting that decades after the United States attempted to follow the British example with varied results.  As a sanctioned and militarized government marine,  Merchant Navy officers were licensed, and at an individual's and company's prerogative, uniformed in distinctive cap devices and special cuff lace (alternately known as braid, distinction lace or rank stripes).  The cap device (hat badge in United States parlance) is comprised of a Tudor Naval Crown surmounting a maroon-cushioned oval on which rests a silver anchor without cable.  The cushion is surrounded by a double border of tightly looped gold wire or purl, and framed by gold oak leaves and acorns.  The stylized Tudor Naval Crown is of particular interest as it is found on official British ship crests - for King Henry is credited with circumnavigating the British Isles.  Cuff lace, also authorized for Merchant Navy officers, followed the pattern set by the Royal Navy with the noted exception of the executive curl, which as opposed to being curvilinear and resting on the uppermost rank stripe was moved between stripes and made lozenge.  As may be discerned from the photograph, officers aboard an RARV wore an insigne quite similar to that of period Merchant Navy (at the time also called interchangeably the Mercantile Marine or Mercantile Navy) and Royal Navy.  This is a not at all uncommon occurrence, as Shipping Lines and the Government Marine wore very similar rank identifiers and uniform components; what is striking is the fact that RARV officers have crowns above their rank stripes and modified Merchant Navy cap badges.  There exists no clear published explanation for this uniform design - other Admiralty-sanctioned bodies and Merchant Navy types at the time wore a insignia, whereas RRS crew wore something altogether dissimilar.  If we think of the RRS crew as Merchant Mariners, then we would expect lozenges and chevrons in the cuff lace; if we think of them as an Admiralty body, then cuff devices would be wavy with elaborate executive curls like their peers in the Fleet Marine Reserve or Volunteer Reserve Navy.  However, if we consider RRS as an independent extra-governmental body, as the Irish Lights Commission, whose maritime personnel wore lace similar to that of the RRS officers, albeit with a miniature lighthouse device above all, then the curious cuff symbolism makes sense.  The RRS had the distinction of being Royally warranted, thus explaining the crown cuff devices.  RRS is unique in being the only British maritime organization to have these specific cuff devices.  Other, private lines, which held warrants from the Crown to carry mail could have a Royal Crown surmounting company insignia on cap devices and buttons but not above cuff lace.

However, unlike the Royal Navy and like the Merchant Navy, officer uniforms of the British Antarctic Survey continue to have branch colors between the rank rings on coat cuffs and epaulettes.   The practice for distinguishing non-executive office by such means was abolished in 1955 by the Royal Navy, except for those who must be clearly recognisable as non-combatants serving with the Royal Navy as stipulated under the Geneva Convention.  Since Merchant lines and the Merchant Navy inhabited a civil space their uniforms retained the practice.  The BAS, not subject to Royal Navy regulations, also kept the distinctive colors.  A relevant thought to consider is that since the same tailoring shops provided both shipping lines and the Royal Navy with livery and uniforms, influence of the latter can be discerned in the former, and now former acts as a remembrance of a passed tradition; interestingly, formal military costume these days is thought to retain conservative fashion and embellishments, this example is quite the opposite.

As mentioned previously, the BAS vessel officer insignia closely mirrors that of the Merchant Navy; this is quite visible in the insignia of rank.  At present, on either cuff braid on coats or slip-on epaulettes for shirts, the lace of distinction is thus for BAS vessel officers:
  • Captain and Chief Engineer: four stripes
  • Chief Officer and 2nd Engineer: three stripes
  • 2nd Officer and 3rd Engineer: two stripes
  • 3rd Officer and 4th Engineer: one stripe.
  • Electricians or Electric Technical Officers (ETO) including the Radio Officer, and the Purser: two and one half stripes.
Branch colors, found between the rank stripes are:
  • Black: Executive or Deck.
  • Green: Electricians (ETO)
  • Blue: Engineers.
  • White: Pursers and Catering.
In the late 1950s, branch colors were exactly the same, with the noted exception of:
  • Purple: Engineers.
  • Red: Surgeons or ship's doctors.
Through the 1950s until the present day, Pursers and Catering staff also wear distinctive silver buttons.

Returning to the hat badge itself, of interest and what makes the BAS badge unique is the heterogeneous use of apparently Royal Navy and Merchant Navy symbolic elements.  The cap device is comprised of a Royal crown surmounting a white leather cushioned oval on which rests a black anchor.  The cushion is surrounded by a double border of tightly looped gold purl, and framed by tightly-grouped gold laurel leaves.   The St. Edward crown on the BAS cap badge is such because its fleet were once Royal Research vessels - prior to Elizabeth II's  ascension the crown was a Tudor-style crown, note the difference in both the presented badges and those of the officers in the photograph above.  The white oval is a symbolic reminder of the BAS vessels being involved in Polar region exploration.  And the black anchor is in somber respect of the Antarctic explorer, Sir Walter Scott who died on his last venture to the ice-bound continent.  Thus, a Royal Navy element is not present, and the badge follows a decidedly Merchant Navy pattern.



If we view the uniform as a second skin, then the emblems displayed and badges of rank presented thereupon - as Clastres posits that tattoos do in primitive society - serve as visible metaphors of belonging to and the execution of a polity's power over the individual.  That is, they are potent inscriptions of a subaltern status to society and hierarchical affiliation within societal structure upon the body.  These badges, in turn following Foucault's argument in Discipline and Punish, both remind and bind the self, mold the person into a circumscribed role, and mark an individual person to others.  That's quite a weighty symbolic package taken by donning a uniform, and a few flourishes of cloth and metal, but there you are.

Merchant Navy insignia, and by extension BAS insignia, details the very specific identification of place and privilege concerns of the British polity acting within the maritime establishment.  At the interwar zenith of the British Empire, the accepted British Imperial uniform geography reached fruition:  medals and badges of individual distinction found their locus over the chest, close to the heart; a person's station showed itself on the sleeve; and allegiance on one's hat.  Through the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century, the Royal Navy was the master of the seas, was regarded as force to both emulate and fear; and to mimic.  For example, the color distinction between cuff rank rings elaborated by decree in 1853 for the officers of the Royal Navy soon found its way onto uniforms of commercial lines once their ships aggregated into fleets.  With the adoption of Imperial insignia viz branch colors and cuff braid, many merchant shipping companies attempted to attract business or create an illusion of professionalism by purposefully basing their corporate livery upon the uniform of the Royal Navy.  Cook Castle and Co was the first to  adopting the color "inserts" and went as far as using the executive curl.  Other shipping concerns, following the trend initiated by those with greater gravitas, chose those designs which were generally agreed upon and adopted by uniform suppliers -  albeit tempered by the personal taste of the ship owner as determined by available commercial options - a shade of blue brighter or weave a bit more elaborate than the original.  And, still others had no uniform at all (this last point changed by a series of Royal decrees in 1918, 1919 and finally 1921, only met recension in 1995).

National militaries, following the thesis of De Chambray in Philosophie de la Guerre, are in harmony with a country's social and political organization.  The formal British maritime establishment reproduced the caste system in the discipline and structure of its ships, reaching its symbolic elaboration in the difference between the costume of its officers and men.  Uniform components of prestige materials, lace of gold wire and finely tailored coats were reserved for officers, while petty ("petite" or lesser) officers wore frocks with diminution of fancy detail, and ratings singlets and wool blouses.  Cap devices, it may be noted, follows the same rubric: more detailed for the officer, stripping away of elements for the petty officer, and finally leaving a band of machine-sencilled ribbon for the rank and file. It could be stated that uniform follows function, but when one functions less, one's clothing becomes becomes elaborate for appearance or pretension of status.  It is thought that markers of rank and distinct devices provide an esprit de corps, but only within a culture of rigid and enforced difference.

The crew onboard BAS vessels of the second millennium are not found working in formal uniforms, as may be the case on Royal Navy ships. However, being a Royal Research vessel, all are uniformed in some fashion and officers do own bits of insignia.  The uniform culture that marked wartime Britain has long passed, and informal, if not personally intimate relationships among BAS and other civilian-manned vessel prevail.  Artifacts of an older, formal culture are found in the daily meals in the wardroom in which ship officers may be found in shirt-sleeves adorned with rank-slides.  Reefer jackets, once an item for almost daily wear in temperate climates and formal occasions, rarely find their way from the locker.  The last time a BAS crew was found in such wear was for a Fleet Review in 2005.  The Captain may don his hat on other official duties, such as taking on a pilot or a visit from a dignitary.  The hard work and inclement weather experienced by the crew forces a spirit of pragmatism; they are not in dress rehearsal for battle, and outward examples of individual discipline as manifest by gleaming brass buckles, eternally pressed shirts and waxed shoes have given way to work boots, boiler suits and heavy foul-weather gear.  By and large BAS personnel have not traditionally worn uniforms and caps simply because there are few opportunities to wear them: their work milleu and Antarctic environment are not conducive to fancy dress.  Best of luck to the collector of BAS vessel officer items, they are the rarest of the rare and highly obscure.

References and further reading:

British Antarctic Survey. British Antarctic Survey. British Antarctic Survey, December 1977.

Sir Vivian Fuchs. Of Ice and Men: the story of the British Antarctic Survey 1943-73. Anthony Nelson Ltd., 1982.

Ernest Henry Shackleton. The Heart of the Antarctic: The Story of the British Antarctic Expedition 1907-1909. Birlin Publishers, 2002.


BAS, Hat badge







BAS, Hat badge fake




There do exist fake BAS badges on the market and are quite dodgey in their composition.  One found in the wild is described as 1950s Queen's crown British Antarctic Survey badges.  It is quite simply a Royal Navy Officer's cap badge with a piece of white linen placed beneath a black-painted anchor.  The badge is suspect on every account. As is known in cap badge circles, even "economy issue" badges produced at the end of the Second World War are deftly executed - a poorly affixed oval of cloth would never be found on the forward face of a badge.  The wreath is altogether incorrect and the anchor is incongruous in both pattern and period.  If anything, we might suspect a period BAS officer wearing a Royal Auxilliary Fleet badge, and not a poorly defaced RN one.  An image of the cited example is found below.  As always, caveat emptor; this was sold at online auction for some 32pounds - only because the seller misspelled "Antarctic" as "Antartic."